Using quantum technology to confine new particles

129Xe amplifier generating an effective magnetic field Beffread by 87Rb rotations. (b) Gain 43.5±0.8 calibrated at frequencies around 9.00, 9.50, 10.00, 10.50, 11.00 Hz. (c) Improved magnetic sensitivity reaches 22.3fT/Hz1/2 at a resonant frequency of 10.00 Hz. Credit: Physical Review Letters (2022). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.051801″ width=”800″ height=”530″/>

Gain of the magnetic field of the rotation sensor. (a) Principle of using the spin sensor to search for exotic interactions. The signal from the pseudomagnetic field is amplified by 129Xe-based amplifier generating an effective magnetic field Bef read by 87Rb rotates. (b) Gain 43.5±0.8 calibrated at frequencies around 9.00, 9.50, 10.00, 10.50, 11.00 Hz. (c) Improved magnetic sensitivity reaches 22.3fT/Hz1/2 at a resonant frequency of 10.00 Hz. credit: Physical examination letters (2022). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.051801

As yet undiscovered axions and axion-like particles may hold the key to explaining some of the deepest mysteries of our universe, such as dark matter and the violation of charge parity in strong interactions. Several recent theories predict that axion masses are likely to lie within the well-motivated “axion window” (0.01 meV–1 meV). However, existing laboratory studies and astrophysical observations mostly look for axions outside the axion window.

The research team led by Prof. Peng Xinhua of the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, in collaboration with Prof. Dmitry Budker of the Helmholtz Institution in Mainz, used a recently developed spin-based amplifier to limit the hypothetical axions within the axion window, providing a way to explore a promising parameter space. The study was published in Physical examination letters.

The exchange of axions between fermions leads to an exotic dipole-dipole interaction that can be detected by laboratory experiments. In this work, the researchers used a large collection of polarized rubidium-87 electrons and polarized nuclear spins of xeon-129 as two types of fermions. Because of the axion exchange, rubidium can generate the exotic signal on the nuclear spins of xeon, and then the polarized nuclear spins of xeon-129 are used to resonantly search for the signal.

In particular, the researchers showed that the long-lived spins of xeon-129 act as a quantum preamplifier that can enhance the exotic signal by a factor of more than 40. Using such a technique, they provided the tightest constraints on axion-mediated neutron-electron coupling for the axion mass from 0.03 meV to 1 meV within the axion window.

This work provides a sensitive quantum technique for realizing indirect axion searches with a newly developed spin-based amplifier, which is a significant improvement in sensitivity in a theoretically interesting mass region for axions. The spin-based amplification scheme, as a new implementation, extends the capabilities of spin measurements and can be further applied to resonance searches for hypothetical particles outside the standard model, such as new spin-1 dark photons.


New spin booster accelerates search for dark matter


More info:
Yuanhong Wang et al, Constraints of axions and axion-like particles within the axion window using a spin-based amplifier, Physical examination letters (2022). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.129.051801

Courtesy of Chinese Academy of Sciences

Quote: Using quantum technology to constrain new particles (2022, July 29), retrieved July 29, 2022, from https://phys.org/news/2022-07-quantum-technology-constrain-particles.html

This document is subject to copyright. Except for any fair dealing for the purposes of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without written permission. The content is provided for informational purposes only.

Leave a Comment